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Irrefutable evidence that the Zapruder film you and I have seen, was faked.

For decades the chain of custody of Abraham Zapruder's home movie has been misrepresented since President Kennedy’s assassination.  We also have learned who had the opportunity and means that weekend, November 23rd-25th, 1963, to alter the film. This new evidence adds more irrefutable evidence supporting of the theory that the CIA, the Secret Service, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff plotted and covered up the assassination the assassination.  In my book and other JFK assassination books are noted other facts that support this theory and the theory that the trigger pullers were most likely anti-Castro Cuban along with their North American mafia associates.


The following new evidence was uncovered by Douglas “Doug” Horne, author of the book Inside the ARRB and by author Peter Janney.  Horne worked as an intelligence analyst in the Navy for 20 years and worked for Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB) that occurred from 1994 to September 1998 on the medical evidence and the Zapruder film.  


After JFK was killed Zapruder encountered The Dallas Morning News reporter Harry McCormick, who was standing near Zapruder and noticed he was filming the motorcade. McCormick was acquainted with Dallas Secret Service agent Forrest Sorrels, and offered to bring Sorrels to Zapruder's office. Zapruder agreed and returned to his office. Zapruder agreed to give two “first day” copies of the film to Sorrels on the condition it would be used only for investigation of the assassination.  The three then took the film to Eastman Kodak's Dallas processing plant later that afternoon where it was immediately developed. It took them until around 6:30 p.m. to develop the Kodachrome motion picture film. The original developed film was taken to the Jamieson Film Company, where three “first day” copies were made. These were returned to Kodak in Dallas around 8 p.m. for processing.

The original film, now 8mm in width, was viewed/played on an 8 mm projector at Eastman Kodak's Dallas processing plant at least twice by several photo laboratory personnel including Production Supervisor Phil Chamberlain, and Customer Service Manager Dick Blair, Zapruder, and his attorney. Zapruder departed the Kodak's Dallas lab at about 9 p.m.


Late Friday night, November 22, 1963, one copy was flown to Secret Service Headquarters in Washington, DC by Dallas Secret Service agent Max Phillips. It arrived early Saturday morning, before dawn, according to David R. Wrone, a history professor who has researched the JFK assassination for 40 years.


A second copy was delivered on Saturday 11/23/63 to the FBI office in Dallas, and then it was flown to FBI headquarters in Washington DC. It arrived on Saturday evening November 24th.


Late Friday night, November 23, 1963, Zapruder was also contacted on the phone by Richard Stolley, LIFE magazine's Pacific Coast editor in Los Angeles. Zapruder agreed to meet with Stolley and discuss the film's potential sale the next morning in his office. 


At the FBI headquarters just after midnight on Sunday November 24, 1963, the movie was viewed by Cartha DeLoach (the third most senior official in the FBI after J. Edgar Hoover and Clyde Tolson) and others at FBI HQ).  This copy was then returned to Dallas on Tuesday, 11/26/63 according to Doug Horne.  He also believes the FBI made copies of its copy before sending it back to Dallas on Tuesday. Doug Horne is the guy who uncovered all this evidence.


Zapruder met with Secret Service officials and Richard Stolley in his office on Saturday morning, November 23, 1963, and Zapruder projected the original film for them on his 8 mm projector.  Zapruder next loaned the camera-original film to LIFE for a six day period and LIFE paid Zapruder $50,000 under an agreement that LIFE would not show publically show the movie. This was some $418.000 in 2020 dollars.  Zapruder kept the one remaining “first day copy.”  He later secretly donated $25,000 of the money he was paid to the widow of Officer J. D. Tippit.  


Richard Stolley said he immediately put the film on a commercial flight bound for Chicago, where LIFE's principal printing plant was located.  But there is strong evidence that a “dirty copy” black and white (maybe partly faked) copy had been made from Zapruder’s first day copy at the CIA’s Kodak’s Hawkeyeworks R&D lab, in Rochester, New York, and then rushed to Chicago Sunday night on November 24th.  Arrival of just one “dirty dupe” at the LIFE’s Chicago  printing plant would have provided the imagery necessary for the first mail-out issues of the magazine to be ready for mailing Monday afternoon, November 25th, and would also have been consistent with the first newsstand issues hitting the shelves on Tuesday, November 26th, as reported by Trask.  (Source:  National Nightmare on Six Feet of Film, by Richard Trask,  p. 117 (2005) 


So we can assume Stolley likely lied when he said he immediately put the film on a commercial flight Saturday morning, November 23, 1963, yet it did not arrive until night on November 24th.  Zapruder “first day” copy allegedly remained with LIFE in Chicago from early Saturday evening, until Tuesday, November 26th.  


Zapruder film researchers Horne and Janney discovered irrefutable evidence that Americans were lied to about the chain of custody and prove that the camera original Zapruder film was in the custody of the CIA and/or Secret Service — not LIFE magazine — from late Saturday evening, November 23rd through Monday morning November 25th, but is of such a provocative nature that it strongly suggests — indeed, virtually proves — the original film was altered that weekend, prior to the publication of any photos in LIFE magazine, and prior to its use by the Warren Commission. 


The CIA officers who altered the color Zapruder film at Hawkeyeworks knew that the wound alteration images in frames 317, 321, 323, 335, and 337, for example, were good enough to show investigators the film.


Now I will get into how we know that Hawkeyeworks at Kodac Lab in Rochester, New York got a copy of the Zapruder film, one of the first day copies loaned to Dallas Secret Service agent Forrest Sorrels or the first day copy loaned to LIFE on Saturday morning, November 23, 1963, where the film was altered.  

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Dino A. Brugioni was the Duty Officer (on call) at National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC) in building 213 in the Washington Navy Yard.  He was told that weekend by NPIC's Director, Arthur C. Lundahl about the impending visit of the Secret Service who would be bringing in a film, and would they require NPIC's to make still photo copies from frames in the Zapruder film.  He was ordered to make two briefing board using the still photos. He knew these would be used to brief high ranking US government officials as was NPIC’s job in the past.  Lundahl had been notified by CIA Director John McCone about the Secret Service’s pending visit (alleged Secret Service, as these two unknown named guys could have been CIA officers).


Dino Brugioni was photo analyst and the Chief of the NPIC Information Branch, and worked directly for the Director of NPIC, Arthur Lundahl, since 1954. Brugioni ended up working at NPIC for 35 years. NPIC was established in January 1960 by President Eisenhower. Its mission was to process and analyze film from first eye in the sky satellites that replaced the U2 airplane.


On about 10 p.m. EST, on Saturday evening, November 23, 1963, two alleged Secret Service agents brought an 8 mm home movie of the JFK assassination to the NPIC. They did not volunteer where they had come from, or where the film had come from.  Brugioni called in, as his primary assistants, Bill Banfield (the Head of the Photography and the Graphics Departments), and Ralph Pearse, the Lead Photogrammatrist. Bill Banfield had in turn ordered in 3 or 4 photo technicians, and 2 or 3 people from the graphics department, to assist in the work that evening.  This work (Event Number One) at NPIC went on all night long, until about dawn on Sunday, November 24th. This “first day” copy of the Zapruder was not copied that night as NPIC did not have that capability.


Brugioni and his team projected the film for two members of the Secret Service several times, and they indicated which frames they wanted prints made from, which in turn should be included on the briefing boards. Brugioni said he that when they projected it for the two agents it was the first time they had viewed the film. After creating the required duplicate negatives from the desired frames, the film was returned the two agents and at approximately 3 a.m. they left the NPIC facility.


Brugioni and his team then made up two identical sets of briefing boards, one set for CIA Director John McCone and one for the Secret Service, but both were eventually delivered to the CIA Director who would in turn provide a set to the Secret Service. Each set was consisted of two boards,(or cardboard) hinged together, and each set contained between 12 and 15 photos made from frames from the film, with the frame number indicated on the board. 


About 6 or 7 AM the next morning when Brugioni's boss, Lundahl (the Director of NPIC), arrived and then took the two briefing boards to the office of CIA Director John McCone. I found one source that said McCone told Robert F Kennedy that the analysis of the film concluded there were two shooters.


Richard Stolley to again approach Zapruder on Sunday night, November 23, 1963 and he offered him an addition $100,000 for Zapruder's movie, for LIFE magazine's total ownership of the film, and all rights to the film.  In total LIFE paid $150,000 or some $1,250,000 in 2020 dollars.


In Dino Brugioni's April 28, 2011 interview with Peter Janney.  Brugioini said, “I remember all of us being shocked…it (a white cloud of tissue from Kennedy’s head) was straight up in the sky…There should have been more than one frame…I thought the spray was, say, three or four feet from his head…what I saw was more than that (meaning more than just in frame 313 in the faked film)…it wasn't low (meaning not just spray of tissue nearby Kennedy’s head ), it was high …there was more than that in the original…It was way high off of his head…and I can't imagine that there would only be one frame. What I saw was more than you have there!”  (Meaning here in a still photo or photos of a series of the frames from the fake film the interviewer showed him.)


While viewing the video (or LIFE magazine photo – I am not sure which) on July 9, 2011, Brugioni also stated that the head explosion he viewed back in Nov. 23, 1963 was a white cloud that surrounded President Kennedy's head, and was not pink or red.


Physicist John Costella thinks the photo of Kennedy’s head exploding into a cloud of tissue and blood, should be seen in at least six frames.  Because gravity is pulling down on the blood and/or the force of wind made by the moving limousine should have forced the spray slightly to the rear.  Even now as we look at this single frame the color of the blood spray is whiter than the color photo published in December 1963 in LIFE magazine and in later issues.


Erwin Schwartz, Zapruder’s business partner said when he viewed the Zapruder film on Friday, November 22, 1963, he saw tissue spray from the head explosion propelled to the left rear of the President when he viewed the film.  His statement dovetails with the consistent recollections of motorcycle officer Bobby W. Hargis, who was hit with great force by debris travelling to the left rear of the head shot.


Here is the link to U-tube video wherein physicist John Costella, PhD explains the errors the CIA

Go to parts 9 to 22 where Costella explains what in the Zapruder film that were faked at a symposium, at University of Minnesota in May 2003.  In parts 1-8, he explains how he analyzed the film.  He even thinks part of faked Zapruder film was later photographed of Dealey Plaza in by someone else using another movie camera.  JFK Zapruder Hoax - John Costella Part 1 - YouTube


You can also go to the below url/link “JFK assassination film hoax” where you can view a red or pink color that had been added to the frame.  It was determined that the red/pink cloud should have been continued onto the next few frames, and because it was not was irrefutable evidence the film was altered/faked.  And we can assume the white cloud was brain tissue blown out of the back of Kennedy’s head and not pink/red cloud in front of his head. JFK assassination film hoax - A simple introduction (assassinations...

Aside from the head shot, he recalled one other thing different from what he saw on November 23, 1963. On viewing altered Zapruder film on July 9, 2011. Brugioini said he remember distinctly seeing Secret Service agent Clint Hill violently pushing Jackie Kennedy forcing her back off the trunk area back of the limousine and into the rear seat.  Brugioni said he had watched this 8 mm film several time prior to making the enlargements and prints for the briefing board.   Brufioni was quite mystified that in his 2011 interview that he did not see that interaction between Mrs. Kennedy and agent Hill.  He said one other thing he definitely remembered on viewing real film, but did not see on viewing the fake film.  He said he did not see a big a piece of tissue or skill bone in the air above Kennedy’s head.  That object he clearly recalled from his memory as something was startling as he was working with the film in 1963, but it isn’t on the fake film.  


You may remember Mrs. Kennedy crawling onto the back of the limousine as she apparently was trying to retrieve a large chunk of JFK’s head, (“a desperate bid to save her husband by attempting to retrieve a piece of his skull.” (Source:  Mrs. Kennedy and Me by former Secret Service agent Clint Hill)


So you and I could maybe argue that Brugioni’s, memory may be in error after working with the film 48 years later.  We know there were some 50 witnesses who were in Dallas on November 22, 1963 and they all said the limousine came to a complete stop for a brief second.   But limousine is not seen in the altered/fake Zapruder film as having stopped.  This is more evidence that the limousine stopping was cut from the original film.

You can watch the interview of Dino Brugioni at the url/link below.  

The Zapruder Film Mystery - YouTube


The making of another set of briefing board -  November 24, 1963

 As a member of the ARRB staff, Doug Horne interviewed Homer A. McMahon and Ben Hunter three times each between June and August of 1997. A written report was produced following each interview; additionally, the second of three Homer McMahon interviews on July 14, 1997 was tape recorded.

Homer McMahon did not recall specifically how he was notified to go into work. But he said he was not called in by Dino Brugioni.  McMahon vividly remembered that the customer at NPIC that night was a single Secret Service agent named Bill Smith. NPIC worked for various elements of the US intelligence community which they called “customers”. McMahon, the head of NPIC’s Color Lab and Morgan Bennett “Ben” Hunter was his assist that evening.  He was a new-hire trainee fresh out of the Air Force. US Navy Captain Pierre Sands, NPIC’s Executive Director was present Sunday evening, November 24, 1963 (Event Number Two) to allow the Secret Service courier to gain entry to NPIC.  Sands worked directly under NPIC's Director Arthur C. Lundahl.  McMahon and Hunter recalled that their work at NPIC occurred prior to President Kennedy's funeral on the 25th, and said their work commenced after dark, and lasted all night long making briefing boards from a home movie of the JFK assassination. McMahon and Hunter created enlargements and prints of frames selected by Bill Smith.

McMahon said he was told by Secret Service agent Bill Smith that a patriotic citizen in Dallas had donated the camera-original film to the Secret Service out of a sense of duty.

 I could not find out if “Bill Smith” was the name of a real Secret Service Agent.

McMahon said Bill Smith said he had personally couriered the undeveloped film to a Hawkeyeworks. By using the top secret words, “Hawkeyeworks”, McMahon knew the home movie film had been developed at the Kodak Headquarters in Rochester, NY. The word “Hawkeyeworks” was classified top secret until it was made unclassified in 2010.

Bill Smith told McMahon that the work was to be treated as above top secret. That it was on a strictly need-to-know basis; and that not even Homer McMahon's boss was not to learn anything about it. McMahon and Hunter were instructed that they could not even answer questions about why they had putting in for overtime, and if they were questioned by their immediate supervisors about the overtime, to inform the supervisors to talk to Captain Sands.

 There is no such thing as above top secret plus need to know.  Everything classified as top secret is automatically understood to be “need-to-know” or in other words, it cannot be disclosed to another person working in the intelligence community, unless one knows for sure the other person is “read-on” to the classified information.  When a person is “read-on” about some the top secret information, they are also told why it would harm national security and/or compromise sources or methods. So when Smith said “above top secret” he was putting the fear of god (jail) in McMahon and Hunter. Also they knew that many covert operations, not knowing or not being told what the hell was really going on was a common occurrence.  And so, they knew not to ask. 

McMahon reported that Bill Smith took custody of all discards, and all scraps and trash that night, and that he and Hunter were not allowed to throw anything into the burn bags (classified trash receptacles).  Now this order again emphasized the seriousness of the home movie film of the murder of JFK. They both should have also become suspicious during the following 12 years passed and the Zapruder movie was never made public and because of all the conspiracy theories about who really killed JFK and how.   

The Zapruder film/movie was not made public for 12 years (1975) because Charles Douglas “C. D.” Jackson, a senior executive of Time Inc.,( Life Magazine) refused to publically show the movie.  He purchased it on behalf of Time/Life.  As an expert on psychological warfare, he has served in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during World War Two and from 1944 to 1945 he was Deputy Chief at the Psychological Warfare Division, SHAEF. Later, he was appointed as Special Assistant to the President in the Eisenhower administration.  As an extremist anti-Communist, he became Managing Director of Time-Life International from 1945 to 1949. He later became publisher of Fortune Magazine. He was a speech writer for Dwight Eisenhower's successful 1952 presidential campaign. He was assigned to be Eisenhower's liaison between the newly-created CIA and the Pentagon. From February 1953 to March 1954, Jackson served as adviser to the President on psychological warfare.  He worked closely with the Psychological Strategy Board and was a member of the Operations Coordinating Board. In 1960, he was publisher of Life magazine.


I talked about these faked backyard photos above. As soon as the backyard photo appeared on the cover of Life Magazine, Oswald was forever linked with the rifle.  How did Life Magazine acquire the backyard photo? According to an extensive FBI investigation, Life acquired the photo from an unknown Dallas Police officer. And who was this unknown police officer? 


According to the Eisenhower Library 

According to the Eisenhower Library files in Abilene, Kansas, C.D. Jackson's "area responsibility was loosely defined as international affairs, cold war planning, and psychological warfare. His main function was the coordination of activities aimed at interpreting world situations to the best advantage of the United States and her allies and exploiting incidents which reflected negatively on the Soviet Union, China/PRC and other enemies in the Cold War."

C.D. Jackson - SourceWatch

 He died on September 18, 1964, so I don’t know who at LIFE magazine had custody or control of the copies of Zapruder film after he died. But he/she most likely had been order by the CIA not to make them public until after a “bootleg” /leaked copy became public in 1975.

LIFE did nothing to justify its investment in the Zapruder film.   

The footage of the Zapruder movie was first shown publicly at the trial of Clay Shaw in 1969, and on television in 1975.   Charles Douglas Jackson - Wikipedia

  1. D. Jackson (

CIA boss Frank Wisner also established Operation Mockingbird, the CIA operation of broadcasting propaganda at Americans. Wisner also recruited C.D. Jackson into this CIA operation. By the early 1950s, Wisner had recruited owners, editors and journalists of the New York TimesNewsweekCBS and other communications vehicles.  You can read more about operation Mockingbird and other irrefutable evidence in my book about the JFK assassination. My theory is the CIA, the Secret Service, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff plotted and covered up the assassination the assassination and the trigger pullers were most likely anti-Castro Cuban along with their North American mafia associates. (Some Unpopular History of the United States, The JFK Years & the Assassination Cover-up by me, Richard McManus and on Amazon Kindle books. C. D. Jackson (


It was relatively easy to keep the McMahon team ignorant of the activity of the Brugioni team (Event Number One). This succeeded remarkably well because of the culture of secrecy within the CIA. Brugioni never found out about briefing boards being made at NPIC (Event Number Two) until 2009. His boss Arthur Lundahl never told him about it.  Lundahl and Navy Captain Pierre Sands must have understood that faking of the Zapruder film pointed to the CIA.

In 1975, President Gerald Ford appointed the President's Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States, that was headed by Vice President Nelson Rockefeller.  Ford did this in response to allegations in the media of widespread illegal CIA domestic activities, including mind-control-drug experiments upon unsuspecting American citizens; illegal mail opening; and illegal surveillance of domestic political groups. On March 24, 1975, an American citizen named Paul Hoch (a Berkley, California computer programmer) submitted a long list of questions to be asked at the Rockefeller Commission hearings.  One question was what use did the CIA make of the Zapruder film?  This question may have been a response to the broadcasting on March 6, 1975 of the bootleg/leaked copy of the Zapruder film by the ABC television network.


This one simple question from Paul Hoch resulted in a series of exchanges in May of 1975 between Rockefeller Commission Senior Counsel Robert B. Olsen, and the CIA, about the Zapruder film.  As a result the new NPIC Director, John Hicks, asked Dino Brugioni if he had one of the briefing boards he had made (Event Number One). Brugioni informed John Hicks about the existence of a briefing board he stored with other classified material and he showed it to himHicks’ response was both profane, and violent. Hicks yelled, “What the hell are you doing with that?  Get the Goddamn thing out of here!”  Dino Brugioni in 2011when interviewed by Doug Horne and Peter Janney, he was still mystified about why Hicks was so angry. 


And Brugioni at once wrapped up the briefing board, and sent it over to the office of CIA Director William Colby, and he never saw it again.  This briefing board had been returned to NPIC when CIA Director John McCone retired, and Arthur Lundahl, the Director of NPIC, had given it to Dino Brugioni and told him to lock it up. Brugioni said Lundahl order him not to let anyone see it, other than himself and Brugioni. Since that time, Arthur Lundahl had retired and Hicks had taken over as NPIC’s Director.


The question I ask you is why was Hicks so angry or afraid.  What did he know about it to cause him to react this extreme way?  I also suspect Lundahl may have allowed the briefing board to be stored at NPIC, hoping it would be discovered years later.   And I know people were murdered to cover up JFK assassination.


In 2008, California resident Sydney Wilkinson and her husband purchased a 35 mm copy of the negative of the Zapruder film from the National Archives. Her husband was/is a video editor at a major post-production film company in Hollywood and he commissioned some kind of scans of each frame of the dupe negative.

Numerous Hollywood film industry editors, colorists, and restoration experts viewed the scans of the Zapruder film as part of the couple's forensic investigation of the film. In the logarithmic color scans there are many frames (notably 317, 321, and 323) which show what appear to be black patches or crude animation, that obscured the hair on the back of JFK's head. The blacked-out areas just happen to coincide precisely with the location of the avulsed, baseball-sized exit wound in the right rear of JFK's head as seen by the Parkland Hospital staff, in Dallas. 


In the opinion of virtually all of the dozens of motion picture film professionals who viewed the Zapruder film scans, the dark patches do not look like natural shadows, rather they appeared quite anomalous (painted onto the film). Some of these film industry professionals — in particular, two film restoration experts accustomed to looking at visual effects in hundreds of 1950s and 1960s era films — have declared that the aforementioned frames are proof that the Zapruder film has been altered, and that it was crudely done.  We can assume the CIA did not want the Zapruder movie out of fear that the cover up would be easily noticed and questions asked.   This is just one more piece of irrefutable evidence that the film was altered. 

You can see photos of the faked frames and you can clearly the black mark added to the back of Kennedy’s head which was likely painted onto the film.  This photo was published in January 2019.

Also in URL/link below is a photo of the briefing boards made at Event Number Two. When Dino Brugioni saw this photo, he knew immediately that this photo of these briefing boards was not of the ones he had made.  He pointed out several things in this photo of the Event Number Two briefing board that were missing in layout/design he and his team had made.  There is also

MWN Episode 107 – Douglas Horne on the Zapruder Film Alteration Deb...

In 1995 Douglas “Doug” Horne joined the staff of the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Review Board, and rose to the position of Chief Analyst for Military Records. In that capacity, he focused on the medical evidence surrounding the JFK autopsy; the Zapruder film. In 2009, he published the extensive five-volume work, Inside the Assassination Records Review Board, which documents the US government’s cover up of the medical evidence surrounding JFK’s assassination, and the alteration of the Zapruder film of President Kennedy’s assassination.

Here is a link to a paper by Doug Horne

The Two NPIC Zapruder Film Events: Signposts Pointing to the Film's...

May 19, 2012

The Two NPIC Zapruder Film Events: Signposts Pointing to the Film's...

The Two NPIC Zapruder Film Events: Signposts Pointing to the Film's...


 For the rest of this story 


Some Unpopular History of the United States
The JFK Years & the Assassination Cover-up

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